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Moore's Law and The Secret World Of Ones And Zeroes

Moore's Law and The Secret World Of Ones And Zeroes be hold the transistor a tiny switch about the size of a virus that can control the flow of a small electrical current it on the most important inventions, ever because when it's onits on and when it's of its of sound ssimple probably too simple but this either or situation is incredibly useful because it's a binary system on or of yes or no one or zero with enough transistors working together we can create limitless combinations of on San of ones and zeros to make a code that can store and process just about any kind of information, 

you can imagine that's how your computer compute san Italian you're watching me right now it's all because those tiny transistor scan be organized work integrated in the integrated circuits also known a smicro chips are microprocessor swhich can orchestrate the operation have millions of transistors at once and apretty recently the only limitation tohow fast and smart our computers couldget was how many transistors we can packon to a microchipback in  Gordon Moore cofounder at the Intel Corporation predicted that thenumber of transistors that could fit ona microchip would double every two years so essentially every two years computers would become twice as powerful this is known in the tech industry as Moore's law and for forty years it was pretty accurate

Moore's Law and The Secret World Of Ones And Zeroes

we went from chips at about  transistors in the chips with about  million transistors by  what over the last years we've fallen behind the exponential growth that more predicted the processor is coming up assembly lines now have about a billiontransistors which is a really big numberbut if we were keeping up with more lawwe be up to $. billion by now so whyis the trend slowing down how can we get
more transistors onto wood chipare there entirely different technologies

Moore's Law and The Secret World Of Ones And Zeroes

we can be using instead oneis that pose no limitations andhow do billions a little on off switchis turned into movies and music inYouTube videos about signs the displayat a glowing magical boxOilers it's not magic its science she dayd understand the device that you're usingright now as well as the challenges computer science is facing and with the future of computing might look like you have to start smallwith that transistor transistor isessentially a little gates that can beopen or shut. with electricity tocontrol the flow of electrons betweentwo channels me a silicon which are separated by long gap they made a sale again becausesilicon is a natural semiconductorit can be modified to conduct electricity really well in someconditions or not at all and otherconditionsin its pure state silicon forms reallynice regular crystal seach adam has four electrons and itsouter shell that are bonded with thesilicon atoms around it this arrangement makes it an excellent insulator it doesn't conduct electricity very well because all that electrons are spoken forbut you can make that crystalline silicon conduct electricity really wellif you do bit you know doping when youinject one substance into anothersubstance to give a powerful properties like what Lance Armstrong bid to win theTour de France seven times only insteadof super powered Tiger blunder

Moore's Law and The Secret World Of Ones And Zeroes

whatever the silicon is dope with another element like phosphorous which has five electrons in its outershell or boron which has threeif you inject these into peer crysta lsilicon suddenly you haveextra on bonding electrons that can move around in jump across the gap between the two strips in silicon but they'renot gonna do that with a little kick when you apply apositive electrical judge to atransistor that positive charge will attract those electrons which are negative out of both silicon strips drawing them into the gap between them when another electrons are gathered they turn into a current remove the positive charge hand the electrons it back into their place is leaving the gap empty us the transistor has two modes on and of one and all the information your computer is using right now is represented by sequence slove open and shot transistors

so how does a bunch of ones and zeros turn and me talking to you on the screen right now was just imagine a transistors hooked up together I say age because one by dub information is madeup eight bits thats on or off switches that's the basic unit other single piece of information inside your computer and the total number of possible on of configurations for those a transistors is  that means  combinations of ones and zeros in that a bit sequence so I'd say are a transistor microchip is given despite have data that's the number in binary by the way okay so what now good thing about binarydata is that the same string the 's and's can mean totally different things depending on where it sent different parts of your computer usedifferent decoding keys to read the binary code sovereignty Daniel a transistor micro chip kick that biteover to our graphics card 

a graphics card will interpret it as oneof  colors which ever one is coated his number but if that same by this endeavor to our sound card it might interpret it is oneof two hundred and fifty six different spots mapped onto a sound wave each spot has its own sound and our Bible Code for a spot number to your speaker will put out that sound if it sent over the bar you can be that converts data into written language called the utf codeit turns it into the letter C uppercaseC actually not lower case EE which is adifferent bite or a transistor processor already have a lot of options theproblem is that they can only manage onebite update at a timeand even if it's flying through bitesiterative a few million per second withyour computer is doing right nowthat's still a serious data checkpointso we need more transistors and then more and Mar and Mark and my for the past  years the biggest obstacle to cram in more and more transistors onto a single chip and therefore increasing our processing power has come down to one thing how small we can make that gap between the two silicon channels and you need to compete in those gaps are so big that you could see them with the naked eyetoday a state oft heart microchip has got that are only  nano meters across to give users a perspectivea single red blood cell is a hundred and twenty five times larger than that nano meters is the with the only a fewhundred Adam so there's a limit to howlow we can gomaybe we can achieve that gap down to were  or even  animators usingcurrent available technology but thenyou start running into a lot of problemsbirth big problem is that when you'redealing with components that are sosmall that just a few stray Adams can ruin a chip it's no longer
possible to make chips that are reliableor affordable second the problem is heat that many transistors churning through millionshave bytes of data per second in such asmall space generates a lot up heat I mean we'restarting the test chips that gets so hotthat they melt through the motherboard and then sometimes through the floor and thethird big problemis quantum mechanics so quantummechanics you wouldn't chanting treacherous minks you start dealing with distance is better that small you startto face the very real dilemma electrons just jumping across the gap for no reason and a phenomenon known as quantum tunneling and that starts happening indana is gonna start getting corrupted while it moves around inside your computer suphow can we keep making our computer seven faster when Adams aren't getting any smaller well might be time to abandon silica graphenefor example is a more highly conductive material that would let electrons travel across it faster we just can't figureout how to manufacture it yet anotheroptionis to abandon electrons because and getready to have your mind blownelectrons are incredibly slow like theelectrons moving through the wire thatconnects the lamp to the wall outletthey're moving about eight and a halfcentimeters per hour advanced enough money on drugs only have to travel nanometers butother stuff can go a lot faster likelight optical computers would be aroundphotons that electrons to represent theflow of data and photons are literallyas fast as anything can possibly beso you can't ask for better than that ofcourse there are some major problems with optical computing like the back thephotons are so fat that it makes themhard to pin down for long enough to beused for data and the fact that lasers which are probably what opticalcomputing would involve are huge power hogs in would be incredibly expensive to keep runningprobably the simplest solution to faster computing isn't a switch to fancy new materials are harnessed the power lightbut due to start using more chips be upfor chance processing a program inparallel the computer will be four timesfaster rightfood yes but my group James arm super expensive and it's also hard to design software that makes use of multiple
processors we like our flows have datedto be linear because that's how we tend to process information in its kinda hard habit to break and then there is areally exotic options like thermal computing would use as variations in heat torepresent bits of data or quantum computing which deals inparticles that are in more than onestate at the same time thereby totallydoing away with the wholeon of either or systems or ever computers go next they're gonna need to be some big changes if we want our technology to keep getting smaller and smarter and faster 

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